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(Português) Novo livro “UI5 para desenvolvedores SAP/ABAP”

abap101

Sorry, this entry is only available in Português. For the sake of viewer convenience, the content is shown below in the alternative language. You may click the link to switch the active language.

O Flávio Pagoti, do blog ABAP101 publicou um livro em português sobre SAPUI5/OPENUI5.

Aqui está o artigo do ABAP101 a anunciar o livro. Lá encontras um link para o comprar. Custa $9,99.

A minha principal motivação quando decidi criar o Abapinho foi exactamente combater a gritante falta de conteúdos técnicos de qualidade escritos em português. Hoje as coisas estão um pouco melhores, em particular no mundo do ABAP onde há vários blogs de óptima qualidade. É fantástico que surjam publicações em português nesta área, ainda por cima de um assunto tão novo e inovador como este. Desejo-lhe muito sucesso.

Se prezas a tua carreira como ABAPer aconselho-te a começares a dar atenção a estas novas tecnologias e abordagens. Aqui tens uma oportunidade não só de o fazer como de apoiares a criação de conteúdos técnicos em português.

O Abapinho saúda-vos.

Teach ABAP to juggle

linhas_paralelas

What can be done when a night is not enough to complete the daily processes?

Ler o resto do artigo! »

Best practices
Thou shalt modularize, modularize, modularize

ashtanga02

Historically ABAP programs tend to grow very loooong. All programming best practices teach us there is not a single advantage in this approach.
If any routine, be it a program, a method, a function or anything else, becomes longer than 200-300 lines, question it and seriously consider refactoring it into several sub-routines.
This has the added advantage of potentially increasing code reuse. But the greatest advantage is encapsulation, isolating variables in their local context, instead of having all of them together, resulting in safer and more readable code.
The Official ABAP Programming Guidelines book advises this in its chapter 2.2 KISS (pages 32-34).
http://help.sap.com/abapdocu_731/en/abenencapsulation_guidl.htm

Best practices
Thou shalt reuse, thou shalt not rewrite

ashtanga03

If the same piece of code is repeated at least once, question yourself why and try to avoid it by creating a reusable routine.
If there is more than one SELECT for the same table in a program, make sure you can’t merge them into a single one. Sometimes a smart use of RANGEs to unify parameters can avoid the need for multiple SELECTs.
If the same code is used in 2 different programs, don’t repeat the code. Instead, create a class for it which can be shared by both and move the reused code to the common class.
http://abapinho.com/en/2012/06/mais-ranges-menos-selects/

Best practices
Thou shalt avoid global variables

ashtanga04

The more global variables a program has, the most obscure it becomes. Please avoid them. This is a basic rule of good programming and should always be followed. Even if several variables have to be passed by parameter, it takes slightly more effort but yields a much more readable and safer code.
Exceptions can be made for simple reports which run around a single internal table, which can be declared globally without compromising clarity.

How to ask if the line exists without seeming fashioned

carris

Long ago, you used the expression “groovy, man”. Later came “great, man”. Then there was “cool”. Today you say “awesome”. It’s important not to get confused and not make a fool of yourself. 

And how do you ask an internal table if a line exists exists?

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Stop the functions module’s error messages

silencio

There are standard functions that trigger messages where they shouldn’t. And they shouldn’t because we want to use these functions in non-interactive programs and then, instead of returning the error, an error message is triggered and ruins the whole process.
 
However, being aware of this problem, SAP has provided a quite elegant (but not well documented) way of solving this problem.
 
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Text search in a WebDynpro

seti

SAP doesn’t know how to do things right the first time. The WebDynpros are a good example of this. It doesn’t even let you do a text search. It’s sad.

Fortunately Sérgio Fraga has found a way, though it’s rather laboured:

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It’s my birthday!

6velas

I’m 6 years old!

(Thank you Caleb Prichard for the photo)

Best practices
Thou shalt always use a predefined structure with ALV

ashtanga13

It is common to find an ALV data structure explicitly defined in the code. If this is done, the field catalog has to be manually constructed. If a predefined structure (from DDIC or declared as a TYPE) is used instead, the field catalog can be automatically built. This approach is always better and results in less code, even if the field catalog needs to be adjusted here and there.
http://abapinho.com/en/2011/12/automatizar-catalogo-alv/

Best practices
Thou shalt use TRANSPORTING NO FIELDS

ashtanga06

Many times we do READ TABLE itbl or LOOP AT itbl just to do a CHECK SY-SUBRC = 0. In these cases, the actual data read is not needed. For these cases always use TRANSPORTING NO FIELDS. This way is faster and avoids having to declare a target structure.

Debugging an infinite loop already in execution

cobra-infinita

Imagine you have a program executing an infinite cycle or, at least, a cycle with 70×7 iterations. It is neverending, and you want to know what’s going on there.

In the past you had to go to SM50, select the process and choose from the menu “Administration | Program | Debug”.

But now there is a much easier way.

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How many includes is a class made of?

sapateira

No matter how many times things go around in ABAP, everything ends up in SE38. Even the methods of the ABAP classes are saved in includes.

Sometimes, when there is a dump, it says the problem is, for example, here: CL_MESSAGE_HELPER=============CM001.
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Unreleasing a released transport order

mulher-policia

You’ve released a transport order because you thought everything was ready. However, one more minor modification was still missing. So now you will have to create a new order and transport both of them. What a drag.

Don’t worry.
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Presenting the EGSAP_TECH app

EGSAP_TECH

Do you know about the EGSAP_TECH app? It’s a SAP knowledge bank.

Here is a description in the words of its own creators:

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SELECT-OPTIONS default behavior

interruptor

Abapinho received a letter.

Mr. Abapinho,

Everybody knows how to set default values in select options using the DEFAULT keyword. What some people may not know is that one can also set the default option, sign and even if allows for intervals or just fixed values.
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Chained exceptions

corrente

Today I will teach you how to chain exceptions. It’s a very practical solution to a complicated, not so obvious problem.

Let’s start by describing the problem.

Imagine you are in the application BANANA.
The application is quite complex.
It has three modules: BANANA1, BANANA2 and BANANA3.
Each one has its exception class ZCX_BANANA1, ZCX_BANANA2 and ZCX_BANANA3.
Since the application is in fact well designed, all the exception classes inherit from the same ZCX_BANANA.
Now imagine the following scenario.
You are in the BANANA1 module doing something.
There, you must call a class from the MORANGO module.
Of course, this class launches exceptions of the type ZCX_MORANGO.
This is the context.

You have several options:

Option 1: Declare the external exceptions
The method which calls the MORANGO class declares the exception ZCX_MORANGO in RAISING.
All of the methods which call it must declare it as well.
Henceforth, to the top of the call hierarchy.
It’s a big mess.
Imagine that BANANA must also use classes from the modules ABACATE, LARANJA and UVA.
It will also have to declare the respective exception classes in every method which uses them.
The more complex it is, the more confusing it all becomes.
This is not what we want.
Generally, anyone who does this ends up having to do a CATCH CX_ROOT, which is somewhat unhealthy.
For all of these reasons, option 1 should be avoided.
Except in very simple scenarios.

Option 2: Convert external into internal exceptions
Each BANANA method which invokes MORANGO methods always does TRY CATCH for ZCX_MORANGO and immediately launches an exception of the type ZCX_BANANA.
This even works.
The problem is that, for each exception of MORANGO, there must be an equivalent exception of BANANA.
If it’s just one, everything’s okay.
But in the case of dozens, it becomes silly.
And it’s not very secure.
Each of the exceptions created will have to replicate the specific text of the respective MORANGO exception.
This is not very practical.
This is because if tomorrow someone changes something in MORANGO, then BANANA becomes outdated.
It also tends to generate a large amount of confusion.
For all of these reasons, option 2 should be avoided.
Except in very simple scenarios.

Option 3: Use PREVIOUS to create chained exception
All exception classes have an attribute called PREVIOUS.
This is a reference for each exception class.
When the BANANA method invokes methods of MORANGO it always does TRY CATCH to ZCX_MORANGO.
But it does not launch a specific exception for each exception of MORANGO.
Instead, it always launches the same ZCX_BANANA exception.
But I have assigned the MORANGO exception to the PREVIOUS of the BANANA exception.
Whoever handles all the exceptions at a higher level only has to see whether the PREVIOUS has any content.
If it does, then it presents/saves/processes the exception there as well.
Ideally this should be done in LOOP.
In the event the exception of PREVIOUS has, in turn, another exception in its own PREVIOUS.
This is the best of both worlds:
Future proof code, which does not lose the information of specific exceptions.
For me, this is the best option.

I hope the both problem and the solution I propose are clear.

I leave you now with a simplified implementation of option 3:


TRY.
  TRY.
      o_morango1->cresce().
    CATCH cx_morango INTO o_exp.
      RAISE EXCEPTION TYPE cx_banana
        EXPORTING
          previous = o_exp.
  ENDTRY.
CATCH cx_banana INTO o_exp.
  WHILE o_exp IS BOUND.
    log( o_exp ).
    o_exp = o_exp->previous.
  ENDWHILE.
ENDTRY.

Thank you Clark for the photo.

Greetings from Abapinho.
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Ignore function module exceptions

zero

When calling a function module which returns exceptions you normally give them sequential numbers like this:


CALL FUNCTION 'GO_BUT_PLEASE_COME_BACK'
  EXPORTING
    ali = 'To the moon'
  EXCEPTIONS
    NOT_FOUND = 1
    GOT_LOST  = 2
    OTHERS    = 3.

But Code Inspector may be configured to report a warning if afterwards you are not careful to add an IF or a CASE to look at SY-SUBRC,
Ler o resto do artigo! »

Best practices
Thou shalt use use exception classes

ashtanga07

In classes, consider using exceptions classes over the old ones. These have great advantages and, once understood, are simple and allow for simpler code.
http://www.slideshare.net/pruebaedublog/exceptions-handling-concept-in-abap
http://www.scribd.com/doc/86551830/26/Lesson-Exception-Handling-in-ABAP-Objects
http://zevolving.com/2011/12/class-based-exception/

Best practices
Thou shalt use readily translatable explicit literals in programs

ashtanga08

In reports, instead of WRITE TEXT-001, use WRITE ‘bla bla bla’(001). This way a default text will always be there and besides the readability of the program is improved.
http://abapinho.com/en/2011/11/programas-poliglotas/


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